Multiple myeloma has many different subtypes. There are also several precancerous conditions which can occasionally lead to multiple myeloma. These include:
What is Light Chain Myeloma?
Most myeloma patients produce the antibodies known as immunoglobulins. If you only produce an incomplete immunoglobulin known as light chain antibody, you have myeloma in the light chain. Only 20% of myeloma patients have this type. These proteins can gather in and damage the kidneys.
What is Non-secretory Myeloma?
Some people with multiple myeloma do not produce enough M proteins or light chains for the test to show they have it which is called as non-secretory myeloma. A biopsy of the bone marrow can help to diagnose this kind of myeloma.
What is Solitary Plasmacytoma?
Normally in a bone or other tissue, when plasma cells become cancerous and develop out of control, they can produce a tumor called a plasmacytoma. This is considered a solitary plasmacytoma. It is called multiple myeloma if you have more than one in different places.
What is Extramedullary Plasmacytoma?
These tumors begin in the soft tissues of the body outside the bone marrow. They typically occur in the throat, sinuses, nose and larynx. There can be multiple myeloma in up to 30% of people with extramedullary plasmacytomas.
What is Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS)?
It is a disease that can cause active myeloma. It involves abnormal antibodies called M proteins that myeloma cells produce. Yet MGUS does not cause any myeloma symptoms. Only 1 in 5 people who have been dealing with this disease for 20 years get active myeloma. People with MGUS are usually not treated unless they have side effects in their hands, feet, or thighs, such as pain and numbness, muscle weakness, bleeding, or heart or kidney issues.
What is Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM)?
There are generally no signs like MGUS. Patients with smoldering multiple myeloma may have more M proteins in their blood or more plasma myeloma cells in their bone marrow. Hence, they are more likely to get an active myeloma.
What is Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Myeloma?
This is a rare type of myeloma that affects only 1% to 2% of all cases. It is more likely for men under 60 to get it. The signs and symptoms are similar to those as other types.
What is Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Myeloma?
IgE is the rarest form of multiple myeloma. It induces the same signs and symptoms as other multiple myeloma types do. This appears to be violent and rapidly grows into plasma cell leukemia or spreads beyond the bone marrow.